Exceptions 3: Where to put catch blocks and handle exceptions

This is the third article in a series about exceptions: BasicsTypes and filteringWhere to put catch blocks and handle exceptionsFinishing up Where your catch blocks are and where exceptions are dealt with matters - probably best to avoid sticking a pin into your code randomly to choose the spot.Image credit The location of catch blocks … Continue reading Exceptions 3: Where to put catch blocks and handle exceptions

Recursion and iteration – blurring the lines

This article is part of a series on recursion and iteration Introduction to iterationIntroduction to recursionMutual recursion and tail recursionBlurring the linesLoop unrolling In this article I will look at how the lines between iteration and recursion can get a bit blurry. This breaks down into three areas: Iteration = fast, recursion = slow isn't … Continue reading Recursion and iteration – blurring the lines

Recursion and iteration – an introduction to iteration

This is the first of a series of articles about recursion and iteration Introduction to iterationIntroduction to recursionMutual recursion and tail recursionBlurring the linesLoop unrolling Recursion and iteration are both techniques for doing some work (or similar work) repeatedly, so that you can solve a bigger problem. This could be things like summing all the … Continue reading Recursion and iteration – an introduction to iteration

Covariance and contravariance, part 3: Covariance in interfaces

This article is the third in a series on covariance and contravariance: Covariance in arraysContravariance in interfacesCovariance in interfaces In the previous article I showed how an interface could be contravariant, meaning it is expecting a smaller type for something you pass it. In this article I will show how an interface can be covariant, … Continue reading Covariance and contravariance, part 3: Covariance in interfaces

Covariance and contravariance, part 2: Contravariance in interfaces

This is part two in a series about variance – contravariance and covariance. Arrays and listsContravariance in interfacesCovariance in interfaces In the previous article I introduced the concepts of variance and type size.  I also gave arrays as an example of covariance. In this article I’ll give an example of contravariance, and go into more … Continue reading Covariance and contravariance, part 2: Contravariance in interfaces